Sunday, January 25, 2015

La Fontaine and Moliere - division 25 Pere-Lachaise

1821 Jolimont: La Fontaine

1828

1832 Quaglia

1832 Quaglia

1836

Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Maison Mont Saint-Louis at Pere-Lachaise Cemetery in the 17th century

Located on the spot where Mr. Renault's home was built in the 15th century, the Jesuit retreat eventually fell into ruin after it was abandoned in the late 18th century. It was torn down to make way for Godde's chapelle in 1823.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Pere-Lachaise in Murray's Handbook to Paris, 1866

Pere la Chaise. On the N.E. of the city. The oldest and largest extramural cemetery in Paris. Now that planted cemeteries are common in England, the visitor will hardly find it worth while to take a drive of near 3 m. to see this cemetery, especially as the height of the trees and the smoke of the Faubourg St. Antoine materially injure the once celebrated view over Paris. Omnibuses run to Pere la Chaise from the Place de la Bastille with correspondence along the Boulevards, and from the Louvre every quarter of an hour. There are guides at the entrance who charge 2 fr. an hour, and it will be the best plan to take one, cautioning him not to employ more than a limited time. A good walker will be able to see all that is interesting in a couple of hours.

The N.E. extremity of the Rue de la Roquette, leading to the cemetery from the Boulevard du Prince Eugene, is filled with makers of sepulchral monuments, dealers in wreaths to decorate the tombs, crosses, etc. The ground now occupied by the cemetery was given to the Jesuits in 1705, and received its name from Pere la Chaise, confessor of Louis XIV, who was then the superior of the order in Paris. On the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1763 it was sold and passed through several hands, until, in 1804, it was purchased by the municipality to be converted into an extra-mural cemetery. Up to this time the dead had been buried in churches or churchyards within the city, and the idea of making a cemetery outside the walls seems to have originated at Francfort, and thence to have been introduced by Napoleon into France, as within the last 25 years into England.

The cemetery has increased in area from about 50 to more than 200 acres. About 50 interments a day take place here; two-thirds of them are in open graves (Fosses Communes), where 40 or 50 coffins are laid side by side and 3 deep in a trench which is then covered over with earth. The charge for this (unless proof of poverty can be adduced) is 20 fr., and it is usual to erect near the spot a small wooden railing and cross, which costs about 15 fr., and a few flowers are usually planted. At the end of 5 years all these railings and crosses are pulled up and the wood given to the hospitals for fuel; the ground is covered with 4 or 5 ft. of earth dug from other graves or from the hill above, and a fresh tier of coffins is deposited.

The next class of graves are the Fosses Temporaires, where for about 50 fr. a separate grave and 10 years' occupation is secured. Here each grave has a little railing, garden, and cross, or chapel. The more solid sepulchral monuments are built on land bought absolutely (concession a perpetuite). The price of a piece' of ground 2 metres (6 ft.) square is 500 fr. There are about 16,000 stone monuments, on which near 5,000,000 pounds have been spent in the last 50 years. The trees have now grown to a great size and make the older part of the cemetery a thick wood. Most of the celebrated Frenchmen of the present century are buried here.

Broad carriage roads lead straight up from the principal entrance; the first turning rt., l'Allee des Acacias, leads to the Jewish cemetery, where Rachel's tomb is the most remarkable object. A little further on we reach the tomb of Abelard and Heloise, which has always attracted much interest. Abelard died in 1142, and was buried 1101 the priory of St. Marcel under the present tomb. Soon afterwards Heloise had his remains removed to the abbey of the Paraclet, of which she was abbess; and on her death, in 1163, she was laid near him. In 1497 their remains were removed into the church of the abbey. In 1792, when the monasteries were dissolved, they were carried in procession by the inhabitants of Nogent-sur-Seine to their parish church. In 1800 their tomb and statues were transferred to the Musee des Monumens Francais, and placed under the canopy of the original tomb of Abelard. In 1817 they were removed to their present place, and the Gothic canopy under which they lie was raised out of the mins of the Abbey of the Paraclet.

Returning to a broad avenue which sweeps round to the l[eft], we come to an open circular space, in the centre of which stands the handsome monument of Casimir Perier (died 1832). The ground rises abruptly behind here, and on the brow some of the handsomest monuments have been placed. The large marble Doric monument to Countess Demidoff, perhaps the most magnificent of all, is immediately above. From the hill higher up the view has been much impeded by the growth of the trees. A path to the right leads to the tombs of B. Constant and Gen. Foy, Manuel the orator, and Beranger the poet (d. 1837). E. of this are monuments to many of Napoleon's marshals-Lefebvre, Massena, Davoust, Mortier, and Suchet. Near the last is tho tomb of Madame Cottin. The grave of Ney (d. 1815) is at an angle between two roads, but without any monument or inscription, in the midst of a pretty flower-garden surrounded by a high enclosure of ivy.

Keeping now towards the N.W., we come to the spot where several of our countrymen are laid, always a melancholy sight in a foreign land. Volney, and Sir Sidney Smith, the defender of Acre, are buried here. Near this is the tomb of Moliere, which was transported from the Musee des Petits Augustins, and adjoining it that of La Fontaine, adorned with subjects taken from his fables. Along the broad road (l'Allee des Marronniers), between these tombs and the English part of the cemetery, are some very fine monuments: those of M. Aguado, a rich banker, of Godoy Prince of Peace, and the Duchess of Duras, are the most remarkable. The lofty pyramid is to the memory of a M. Felix de Beaujour, a rich native of Provence.

Descending from the N. corner of the grounds towards the chapel are the tombs of Casimir Delavigne the poet, of Balzac the novelist, and of David d'Angers the sculptor. In the N.W. angle is the principal burying-ground at this moment (1864) for the lower orders, and beyond, the Mussulman cemetery, enclosed by walls, in which is the tomb of the Queen and Prince of Oude, on each side and behind which is a large space recently added to the grounds, the present place of interment of the lower orders. The chapel of the cemetery of Pere la Chaise is a plain Doric building, from the steps leading to which is a fine view, in which the towers of Vincennes form an imposing object. There are several English monuments to the W. of the wide avenue which leads past the chapel; and in the angle between the avenues on the S. of it are those of many French actors and artists - Talma, Herold, Bellini, Lebrun, Gretry, Boieldieu, etc. Descending from the chapel to the entrance gate, by a broad alley, are the tombs of Arago, the 2 Viscontis, Delambre the celebrated astronomer, and a short way farther S.E. that of Cuvier. The places of the tombs of the most celebrated personages, not mentioned above, will be found on the accompanying plan.

It is the custom in France for the relations and friends to visit the tombs continually, praying by them, and hanging up garlands of immortelles. On All Souls' Day, 2 Nov., the cemetery is crowded.

When the allies advanced on Paris in 1814, the heights of Pere la Chaise were defended for some time against the Russians, who at the third attempt drove back the defenders and finally bivouacked in the cemetery.

 [From A Handbook for Visitors to Paris by John Murray, London, 1866, pp. 211-214]

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Jacques Delille -- division 11 in Pere-Lachaise

1823, Arnaud

1821, Jolimont

1817, Arnaud


1825

1826

1832, Quaglia

Wednesday, January 07, 2015

"Pere La Chaise and Story of Lavalette" by Grace Greenwood 1867

It was on a Sunday, -- a soft, golden October day, that we drove out to Pere la Chaise, the most beautiful cemetery of Paris. This burial-place is very picturesquely situated on the slope of a hill, northeast of the city, and contains within its walls one hundred and fifty acres. It was consecrated in 1804, and named after Pere la Chaise, who was the superior of a religious establishment which once stood on the ground.

This cemetery is like a vast royal garden, full of all beautiful and rare trees and plants, overflowing with flowers, crowded with little chapels, monuments and tombs. Of the last there are sixteen thousand; and the cost of the monuments is estimated at one hundred and twenty millions of francs.

I cannot tell you how lovely and solemn this "city of the dead" seemed to me on that calm Sunday. A sweet south wind was blowing, which gently shook down from trees and vines showers of autumn leaves, that rustled and fluttered about the monuments, eddied in the grass, and rolled along the paths in little drifts of crimson and gold. The soft, mild sunshine seemed to fall tenderly from heaven, like a sign of God's acceptance and forgiveness of that multitude of his erring children, prostrate and silent in the last sleep. The ivy and some other vines were yet green, and clung about tombs like kindly recollections, -- flowers of many kinds, -- roses that reminded one of "the Rose of Sharon"; the azure heliotrope, the brave, constant little mignonette, and the tender myrtle, made sweetness and brightness in the shadow of cypresses and massive tombs; while on many a humble, unmarked mound, and little baby grave, half hidden in the grass, grew fragrant blue violets, glistening with dew, and looking like watchful, loving eyes, brimmed with tears.

So graced and watched over, no grave could look lonely and neglected; but there are other marks of faithful and affectionate remembrance here. Lying on the mounds, and hanging on crosses and monuments, are innumerable wreaths, made of a fadeless flower called the Immortelle; and over many graves the tombs are built in the form of little chapels, or oratories, where mourners go for prayer and meditation; where alone, secluded from all the world, they can spend hours in devotion, in thinking beautiful thoughts, and recalling sweet, sad memories of their dear lost ones, in weeping out their griefs and regrets, and in cherishing precious hopes of an eternal reunion in the blessedness and rest of heaven. In most of these oratories fresh wreaths or bouquets are left daily; and in some, wax tapers are kept burring before the image of our Lord Jesus, or Mary his mother.

The French are usually considered light, irreligious, and heartless; but visiting this cemetery, and seeing what loving care they have for their dead, is enough to convince any one that very many of them must be true-hearted, serious minded, full of good and tender feeling.

It is so much better to have our burial-places pleasant, shady spots, where flowers will bloom luxuriantly, and birds will sing, -- where little children, and, we may hope, angels, will love to come, than to have them shut up in by city walls, crowded and damp and dark, or away off on some bleak hillside, exposed to wind and sun, overgrown with rank weeds, neglected and forgotten.

Lavallette division 36
The first monument that attracted our attention was one in the form of a small Gothic chapel. This was erected to the memory of Abelard and Heloise, two famous, unfortunate lovers of the twelfth century. Their lives were very sorrowful, for they were parts, -- Abelard became a priest and Heloise an abbess, -- but they always loved one another, and were buried side by side. Their bodies were removed several times, and now their dust lies here. Reclining under a canopy on the monument are two marble statues of the lovers, dressed in the costume of their time, lying apparently asleep, and looking very peaceful, though somewhat weary and sad.

This is the most interesting tomb in all the cemetery to romantic people, but I think you would feel as much emotion at the grave of the brave Marshal Ney, who was shot for his devotion to Napoleon, -- at the tomb of the wise and good La Fontaine,-- or that of Bernardin St. Pierre, the author of the exquisite story of "Paul and Virginia," -- or of Madame Cottin, who wrote "Elizabeth, or the Exiles of Siberia," -- or of the the Count Lavalette (pictured right, today).

The most magnificent monument at Pere la Chaise is that of a Countess Demidoff. It consists of ten marble columns, resting on a wide, massive base, and supporting an entablature, under which is a sarcophagus, on which is a sculptured cushion, bearing the arms and the coronet of the Countess. This great, costly monument, which stands on a hill, overlooking the whole cemetery, is erected to one who was merely rich and titled. It seemed to me, in its massiveness and white beautify, but a pile of arrogance and pride, haughtily towering above the graves of heroes and poets, the great and good, and defying death itself. I thought I should rather lie in the lowliest grave of the poor, and have the violets creep over me, than lie in state in that pompous mausoleum, -- that dead woman's palace.

I have spoken above of the tomb of Count Lavalette. Possibly some of you may be unacquainted with his story; I will relate it at a venture: --

LAVALETTE AN HIS WIFE

Marie Chamans, Count de Lavalette, was born at Paris in 1769. He was the son of a shopkeeper, but he received a liberal education, and studied law. When the great Revolution broke out he joined the National Guard; yet at the storming of the Tuileries he nobly risked his life in defending Louis XVI and his family from the fury of the mob. He was filled with horror and disgust at the atrocities of the revolutionists, left France and joined the army abroad. After the battle of Arcola, Napoleon, then General Bonaparte, made him his aid-de-camp, and from that time manifested towards him the utmost affection and confidence. In this instance he showed great good sense and taste, selecting an officer and a friend, for Lavalette was a man of superior talents, remarkable sagacity, a generous spirit, and rare elegance of manner. He accompanied Napoleon on his expedition to Egypt; but a few weeks previous, married Mademoiselle Emilie de Beauharnais, a niece of Josephine, Madame Bonaparte. This marriage was planned, almost commanded by Napoleon, but it proved a very happy one. The bride was young, beautiful, good, and very noble; while Lavalette was amiable, affectionate and faithful, -- loving and admiring his Emilie with all his heart.

Lavalette encountered many dangers in Egypt, in battle and from the plague, but he finally returned to his country and home in safety.

When Napoleon became emperor, he made Lavalette a Count of the empire, and his wife mistress of the robes to the Empress; but when her aunt was divorced, Emilie left the court, and retired to private life.

On the abdication and first exile of Napoleon, Lavalette submitted, and promised allegiance to Louis XVIII. He would have remained faithful, had not this king proved himself a stupid tyrant, and a coward, unfit to reign. When Napoleon returned from Elba, and Louis fled from France, Lavalette gladly went back to the service of his beloved Emperor.

When, after the battle of Waterloo, Napoleon left France for his long, last exile, there was a sad and tender parting between him and his faithful friend. After the restoration fog Louis XVIII, Lavalette was advised to fly from his country; but his wife was ill at the time, and he could not believe Louis base and cruel enough to punish him for his attachment to his old master. However, he was arrested and imprisoned in the Conciergerie, the gloomy, terrible prison in which Marie Antoinette, Madame Roland, and may other noble victims of the Revolution, were confined. Here, in a wretched apartment, -- dark, cold, and damp, -- he sighed away his weary days from July to November, when he was brought to trial, and condemned to die by the guillotine, on the 21st of December.

As soon as she heard of this sentence, Madame Lavalette went to the King, flung herself at his feet, and implored him to spare the life of her husband. So beautiful was her face, even though bathed in tears, -- so noble and graceful her manner, -- such sweetness was in her voice, such pathos in her words, that only very hard-hearted, revengeful man could have resisted her. This miserable king, however, refused to grant her prayer, though he cruelly encouraged her at first. She went a second time, but was repulsed from his presence, and actually sat for more than an hour alone, not he stone steps of the palace, in utter grief and despair.

But as she sat there, weeping, shunned and abandoned by all the world, suddenly a strong, comforting angel seemed to whisper to her soul a brave plan for saving her beloved husband, and she rose up with a noble purpose in her heart, and a prayer on her lips for heavenly help and strength.

She was in the habit o dining with Lavalette daily, sometimes accompanied by her daughter, a lovely young girl, and sometimes by a faithful old nurse. One the last day but one preceding that fixed on for the Count's execution, Emilie said to him, "There no longer remains for us any hope but in one plan; you must leave here at eight o'clock, in my clothes, and go in my sedan chair to where Monsieur Baudus will have a cabriolet waiting to conduct you to a place of safety, where you will remain till you can quit the country."

Lavalette was astounded: he thought the plan of his wife a made and hopeless one, and so he told her. But she was calm and firm, and replied: "No objections; your death will be mine; so do not reject my proposal. My conviction of its success is deep, for I feel that God sustains me."

bronze relief depicting Lavalette's escape dressed in his wife's clothes
It was in vain that Lavalette represented how almost impossible it would be for him to so disguise himself as to deceive the sharp eyes of the turnkeys and soldiers, whom she was obliged to pass every night on leaving the prison; and the probability that, should he escape, they would ill-treat, perhaps kill her, in their rage. She turned very pale, but she was firm, and at last wrung from him a promise to attempt to execute her plan on the following day, his last day of life, if it should fail.

When Madame Lavalette came for her last visit, she was accompanied by her daughter Josephine and the old nurse. She wore over her dress a merino pelisse, lined with fur, and brought her a black silk petticoat. She said to her husband, "These will disguise you perfectly. Before going into the outer room, be sure to draw on your gloves, and put my handkerchief to your face. Walk very slowly, leaning on Josephine, and take care to stoop as you pass through these low doors, for if they should catch the feathers of your bonnet all would be lost. The jailers will be in the anteroom, and remember the turnkey always hands me out. The chair will be near the staircase. Monsieur Baudus will meet you soon and point our your hiding-place. Mind my directions, -- keep calm. God guide and protect you, my dearest husband."

She also gave some directions to her daughter, which the child promised to follow carefully. After dinner the prisoner retired behind a large screen, where his wife dressed him in the petticoat and pelisse she had brought, and put her bonnet on his head, all the while repeating, "Mind you stoop at the doors, -- be sure you walk through the hall slowly, like a person worn with suffering. What do you think of your papa," she said to Josephine, "will he do?"

"Not very badly," said the child, trying to smile bravely, but feeling a great deal of doubt.

As they heard the turnkey approaching, Lavalette said, "He looks in every evening, as soon as he has seen you off. Remain behind the screen, and make a noise by moving something, so that he will think all is right, and not discover my escape till I am clear away."

they they took a solemn, loving leave of each other, and as the door opened, Emilie sprang behind the screen. Lavalette went out with his daughter and the nurse. He followed the directions of his wife, and passed safely jailers, turnkey and soldiers, to the sedan chair, and was soon carried in it beyond the black shadow of the prison, and found himself breathing the delicious air of freedom once more. Monsieur Baudus and the Count de Chassenon met him at the appointed place, with a cabriolet, which he entered with Baudus, and was driven away by the count. The last look he had of Josephine, she was standing on the quay, with her hands joined, her sweet face uplifted in the starry night, praying for her dear father.

In the carriage was a groom's livery, which Lavalette put on, and assumed the character of a servant to Baudus, who conducted him to the house of the one of the king's ministers, -- about the last place in all Paris to be suspected and searched. Here he was received by Madame Brisson, wife of an officer of government, who, at the risk of her life, concealed him, and kindly cared for him; because, having once been a hunted fugitive, she had a vow to help, and, if possible, save any one in similar circumstances.

The full account of Lavalette's long concealment, and the dangers he ran from the rigorous search that was made for him, is very interesting; but I have not room to tell it here. He was obliged to keep his windows closed shut all day, and when at night he ventured to open them, he often heard proclamations of reward for his discovery, or threats of vengeance on those who were harboring him, cir dint he street below, and sounding like the howling of wolves, thirsting for his blood. But he had the joy of hearing also, from Madame Brisson, that the heroic devotion of his wife was everywhere praised, -- that she was almost worshipped by the people.

Lavalette finally owed his escape to some generous Englishmen, who conveyed him out of the country in the disguise of an English officer of the Guards. After an exile of six years, he was allowed to return to France, and rejoin his beloved wife and daughter once more. He sought the seclusion of country life, and in affectionate devotion to his family spent his remaining years. He die din 1830.

Poor Madame Lavalette! When it was discovered that she had set her husband free, she was treated very cruelly by the jailers and the government authorities. She was closely confined like the worst of criminals, -- forbidden to see or hear from a friend, and denied almost every comfort. In delicate health, worn with grief and anxiety, she sunk under her lonely suffering, and, when she was liberated, after six weeks imprisonment (for her enemies dared not condemn her), her noble mind was shattered, -- she had become as a child, only sadder than child ever was. She remained in this melancholy state throughout her life, -- only when her husband returned from exile she seemed to find a sweet content in his presence, and to love him all the better for all she had suffered for him. And so she continued, "ever good and gentle," but not all herself, till she passed from under the cloud of her mortal life, into the light of God's peace.

Josephine married a man worthy of her noble heart, and lived happily, far away from courts and prisons. Perhaps she is living now. Perhaps she sometimes gathers her little grandchildren around her, and tells them the story of their great-grandparents, -- O, far better than I have told it, -- while little hearts swell with pride, and indignation, and sympathetic sorrow. Perhaps she lays a trembling hand on the head of ht youngest darling, whose face is hidden in her lap, and says, while her own dim eyes overflow with tears, -- "Let us not grieve, my children, -- God comforts them now." [From Chapter V, pp. 38-52 in Stories and Sights of France and Italy, by Grace Greenwood, 1867. Lavellette's tomb and the bronze relief depicting his escape can be found in division 36]

Sunday, January 04, 2015